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独家!深圳市教研员整理的新冠话题高考英语学习材料
来源:搜狐新闻发布时间:2020年02月25日

疫情肆虐,很多人都担心中考、高考的学生会受影响。不久前,国内鼎鼎大名的衡水中学又圈了一波粉,学校总结出一整套与新冠肺炎疫情相关的各学科高考考点,让宅在家的学生学习,收获点赞无数。

现在,师说君为大家送福利来了!近日,“首届全国外语教师名师”、深圳市高中英语教研员王卫华老师,在参考《中国日报》、《英语核心素养》、“高中生大学生”、“夺分英语”微信公众号等媒体、平台大量材料的基础上,为大家精心准备了一份 《新冠肺炎疫情高考英语专题学习材料》

从相关词汇记一记,单词、短语看一看,再到外媒剪影读一读,最后还悉心设计了阅读理解和作文题目(连答案都准备好了),这样的学习材料堪称宝贵,这样的教研员可以再来一打!

今天“名师说”获王卫华老师授权,独家发布这一份宝贵的学习材料。也欢迎广大名师投稿、提供更多对各级各类学生有用的学习材料!

王卫华

深圳市高中英语教研员,深圳中学原英语学科组长,华南师范大学、深圳大学教育硕士导师,中国外语教材教法研究中心广东省基础外语教育研究工作室主持人。获“全国外语教师园丁奖”,被评为“首届全国外语教师名师”。

《新冠肺炎疫情高考英语专题学习材料》

一、记一记

【相关词汇】

流行病 epidemic

肺炎 pneumonia

新型冠状病毒 novel coronavirus

新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus /

novel coronaviruscaused pneumonia / novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) / COCID-19

呼吸道疾病 respiratory diseases

急性呼吸道感染症状 acute respiratory infection symptom

确诊病例 confirmed case

疑似病例 suspected case

重症患者 patient in critical condition

病死率 fatality rate

密切接触者 close contacts

接受医学观察 be under medical observation

隔离 quarantine

潜伏期 incubation period

人传人 human-to-human transmission

飞沫传播droplet transmission

发热、咳嗽、呼吸困难fever, cough and difficulty in breathing

输入性病例imported case

二代病例secodary infection case

隐形感染asymptomatic infection

疫情防控epidemic prevention and control

口罩(face) mask

防护服protective clothing

护目镜goggles

一次性手套disposable gloves

医疗物资medical supplies

疫苗vaccine

携带病毒 carry the virus

得肺炎 get/catch pneumonia

超级传染源 superspreader

病毒** virus outbreak

遏制疫情** contain the outbreak

严格的隔离政策 strict isolation policy

封城the lockdown of a city / a city on lockdown

应急医院makeshift hospital

医务人员感染 infection of medical workers

中国大部分地区口罩供应紧张 tight supplies in large areas of China

禽流感病毒 avian influenza virus

流行病学调查 epidemiological investigation

医疗费用报销 reimbursement for medical expenses

重大突发公共卫生事件以及相应first-level public health emergency response

国家卫生健康委员会National Health Commission

国际关注的突发公共卫生事件Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

二、看一看

(一)与“冠状病毒”有关的词

官方命名:Official Name

On Feb.11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) finally gave an official name to the novel coronavirus that has killed more than 1,000 people: COVID-19. “Co” is for coronavirus, “Vi” is for virus, “D” is for disease and “19” since it was detected in late 2019.

世卫组织(WHO)2月11日将新型冠状病毒所致的疾病正式命名为:“COVID-19”。其中“Co”代表“冠状(corona)”,“Vi”为“病毒(virus)”,“D”为“疾病(disease)”。

coronavirus /kəˈronəvaɪrəs / 冠状病毒

这个词可分解为两部分:coronavirus 冠状病毒 =corona+virus 冠状的+病毒。

  • corona:冠状物 (我们所说的 “日冕” 与 “光圈”,也是这个词)
  • virus:病毒

“新型冠状病毒”的英文是 novel coronavirus 。这里的 novel 不是“小说”,而是一个形容词,表示“新型的”。比如 a novel feature(新特性)。例:

Before this outbreak, six coronaviruses had been identified in humans. Four caused relatively mild cold-like symptoms while the other two, Sars and Middle East respiratory syndrome (Mers), can be fatal.

此次疫情**之前,已知的人类冠状病毒有6种。四种引起相对轻度的类似感冒症状,而另外两种——非典和中东呼吸综合征(MERS)——可能致命。

Now, the fatal or deadly infectious disease caused by “Coronavirus” is inhumanly called as “Chinese Pneumonia” on the Internet, which is to kick China while it is down.

现在,由于“冠状病毒”所引起的致命性传染病,在网络上非人道地被称为“中国肺炎”,是对中国落井下石。

fatal /ˈfeɪtl / :a. 致命的;毁灭性的;灾难性的 (对于目前的状况来看,这的确是很丧的一个词儿!)

infectious disease/ ɪnˈfekʃəs dɪˈziːz / :传染病

infectious /ɪnˈfekʃəs /:a.传染的 由 infect (v. 传染;感染)+ ious(形容词后缀)构成

infect / ɪnˈfekt /:v. 传染;感染 由in(进入,使。。。)+ fect (做) 构成 ——咱可以想一下儿:传染或感染,不正是有害物质或病毒,侵入体内,对健康的肌体做坏事儿——进行破坏吗?

infection / ɪnˈfekʃn /:n. 传染 由 infect + -ion (名词后缀)构成

pneumonia / nuˈmoʊnɪə / n. 肺炎

这个词,是由 pneumon- (肺)+ -ia (疾病名词后缀)构成

(二)“冠状病毒”传播的主要途径

1. the air by coughing and sneezing

经由空气传播,比如咳嗽、打喷嚏

2. close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands

通过人与人之间的近距离接触传播,比如触摸或者握手

3. touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands

通过触摸物品或感染病毒的用品表面传播,原因在于没洗手就触摸嘴、鼻和眼睛

4. rarely, fecal contamination

还有一种比较少见的,就是通过粪便传染

(三)如何预防“冠状病毒”

1. Clean hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub.

用肥皂或者用含酒精的洗手液洗手。

2. Cover nose and mouth when coughing and sneezing with tissue or flexed elbow.

咳嗽或打喷嚏时,用面巾纸或屈肘捂住口鼻。

3. Avoid close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms.

避免跟有感冒或流感症状的人密切接触。

4. Thoroughly cook meat and eggs.

将肉类和鸡蛋彻底煮熟。

5. Avoid unprotected contact with live wild or farm animals.

避免在未加防护的情况下接触野生动物或家畜。

三、读一读

【外媒剪影,双语阅读】

1. 什么是冠状病毒?What is a coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals.

冠状病毒是一大类常见于动物的病毒的总称。

In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted (传播,动词) from animals to humans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

据美国疾病控制和预防中心称,在极少数情况下,科学家称之为“人畜共患疾病”,这意味着它们可以从动物传染给人类。

2. 冠状病毒症状Coronavirus symptoms

The viruses can make people sick, usually with a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract (上呼吸道) illness, similar to a common cold.

通常表现为轻中度上呼吸道疾病,症状类似于普通感冒。

For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia (肺炎) or bronchitis (支气管炎).

对于免疫力较弱的老年人和儿童,病毒有可能导致更严重的下部呼吸道疾病,如肺炎或支气管炎。

There are a handful of human coronaviruses that are known to be deadly (致命的), such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome).

有些冠状病毒是致命的,如中东呼吸综合征(MERS)和SARS。

The Wuhan coronavirus is currently thought to be more mild than SARS and MERS and takes longer to develop symptoms. Patients to date have typically experienced a mild cough for a week followed by shortness of breath (呼吸急促). So far, around 15% to 20% of cases have become severe, requiring, for example, ventilation in the hospital.

目前认为,武汉冠状病毒相较SARS和MERS更为温和,潜伏时间更长。到目前为止,患者通常在一周内出现轻微咳嗽,随后出现呼吸急促症状。目前,大约15%到20%的病例病情出现恶化情况,需要入院并接受呼吸机治疗。

3. 传播途径 How it spreads

Viruses can spread from human contact (接触) with animals.

病毒可通过人类与动物的接触传播。

When it comes to human-to-human transmission (传播,名词) of the viruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with an infected person's secretions (分泌物), such as droplets (小水滴,飞沫) in a cough.

病毒在人与人之间传播时,通常发生在接触到感染者的分泌物时,例如咳嗽时的飞沫。

Depending on how virulent the virus is, a cough, sneeze or handshake could causeexposure (暴露,接触). The virus can also be transmitted by touching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes.

根据病毒的毒力,咳嗽、打喷嚏或握手都可能导致暴露。这种病毒也可以通过触摸被感染者触摸过的东西,然后触摸嘴、鼻子或眼睛来传播。

4. 感染人群 Who is affected?

MERS, SARS and the Wuhan coronavirus appear to cause more severe disease in older people, though uncertainty remains around the latest outbreak (**). Of the cases of Wuhan coronavirus reported so far, none are yet confirmed to be among children. The average age is people 40 or over.

尽管最近的武汉冠状病毒疫情仍不确定,但MERS、SARS和武汉冠状病毒似乎在老年人中会引起更严重的症状。在迄今报道的武汉冠状病毒病例中,尚未证实有儿童感染。感染者平均年龄在40岁以上。

5. 冠状病毒感染的治疗 Coronavirus treatment

There is no specific treatment, but research is underway. Most of the time, symptoms will go away on their own (自行消失) and experts advise seeking care early. If symptoms feel worse than a standard cold, see your doctor.

目前还没有具体的治疗方法,但研究仍在进行中。多数情况下症状会自行消失,但专家建议尽早寻求治疗。如果症状比标准感冒更严重,请看医生。

Doctors can relieve (缓解) symptoms by prescribing (开处方) a pain or fever medication.

医生可以通过开止痛药或退烧药来缓解症状。

6. 武汉新型冠状病毒严重程度

Should you worry about the Wuhan coronavirus?

The Wuhan coronavirus fatality rate (致死率) is lower than for SARS and MERS, but still comparable (相当) to the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic (大流行病). The fatality rate is likely to be lower due to an “iceberg” of milder cases we are yet to find.

武汉冠状病毒死亡率低于SARS和MERS,但仍与1918年西班牙流感大流行相当。真实的病死率可能会更低,因为可能有大量较轻病例尚未发现。

7. 如何预防 How can you prevent it?

You may be able to reduce your risk of infection (感染) by avoiding people who are sick. Try to avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. Wash your hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.

可以通过避开病人来降低感染的风险。尽量避免触摸眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴。经常用肥皂洗手,每次洗手至少20秒的时间。

Awareness is key. If you are sick and have reason to believe it may be the Wuhan coronavirus due to travel to the region or coming into contact with someone who has been there, you should let a health care provider know and seek treatment early.

预防意识是关键。如果你前往过武汉或与曾去过那里的人接触,有理由怀疑自己感染了武汉冠状病毒,应报告医疗机构并尽早寻求治疗。

Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, and disinfect (消毒) the objects and surfaces you touch.

咳嗽或喷嚏时捂住口鼻,并对触摸的物体和表面进行消毒。

四、练一练

(一)阅读“七选五”

How to keep yourself safe from the new virus?

After a new-type coronavirus was detected in viral pneumonia cases in Central China’s Wuhan city a month ago, more cases have been reported in recent days.

1 :

1. Wear masks outdoors

  • Wearing a mask is one of the most effective ways to protect you from getting infected.
  • Make sure to wear it properly by tightening up the nose clip and pulling the bottom of it over your chin.
  • 2 , a mask is also needed to prevent you from spreading germs to others.
  • Medical masks used by medical workers are not recommended for common people as they may lead to oxygen deficient if worn for long periods.

2. Cover your coughs and sneeze with tissue

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, or you can cough or sneeze into your sleeve, but avoid covering with your hands directly.

3. 3

Wash your hands with soap and running water thoroughly for at least 15 seconds, especially:

  • Before eating and after using the toilet
  • After returning home
  • After touching trash or garbage
  • After contacting with animals or handling animal wastes

4. Strengthen your immune system and exercise regularly

  • Exercise regularly is one of the most important ways to help you stay away from catching any infections.
  • Make sure that shared spaces have good air flow and avoid going to crowded places such as hospitals, railway stations and airports. 4 .
  • Seek prompt medical attention if you have symptoms of fever and respiratory infection.
  • Avoid close contact with people who have flu or cold-like symptoms.
  • 5 . Avoid contact with wild animals or farmed livestock without any protection.

A. If your hands are not visibly dirty

B. Eat thoroughly cooked meat and eggs

C. Wash your hands frequently and properly

D. Protect yourself and others from getting sick

E. Wear a mask if transport or movement is necessary

F. If you’re not feeling well or have symptoms of fever

G. To prevent catching the infection, here's what you can do

(说明:选文来源:China Daily)

【参考答案】 1-5 GFCEB

(二)语法填空

We are deeply saddened by the passing of Dr. Li Wenliang, one of the eight “whistle 1 (blow)” ,who tried 2 (warn) his fellow doctors of the novel coronavirus when it first broke out in Wuhan,and died early on Friday. Wuhan Central Hospital 3 (confirm)it in a statement released on 4 (it) official Weibo account. “Our hospital’s ophthalmologist Li Wenliang was 5 (unfortunate) infected with coronavirus during his work in the fight 6 the coronavirus epidemic,” the statement read, 7 (add) “He died at 2:58 a.m. on February 7 after attempts to resuscitate were unsuccessful.” “We deeply regret and mourn Li’s 8 (die).” the Central Hospital of Wuhan also announced on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter.

Dr. Li is a hero, 9 will live in our hearts forever. May God bless all the courageous doctors and nurses 10 (fight) on the front line.

【参考答案】

(三)书面表达

假定你是李华,你的外籍教师Tom来信询问武汉冠状病毒感染肺炎(COVID-19)的有关情况。请你给他回信,内容包括:

1. 疫情简况;

2. 应对措施;

3. 战疫信心。

注意:

1. 词数100左右;

2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

【参考范文】

Dear Tom,

I am very glad to hear from you inquiring about the COVID-19 in Wuhan. I am writing to keep you informed of it.

Since the outbreak of the disease in Wuhan in December 2019, the Chinese government has decisively closed down the city to prevent its spread. At the same time, although cases have been found in many other cities, the local people actively face them, to fight against the epidemic side by side with Wuhan.

At this particular time, we are required to stay indoors, isolated. If we have to go out, we must wear protective masks to keep ourselves from getting infected. I addition, we should keep ourselves clean and keep on exercising at home every day.

As many of us say, “Be strong, Wuhan.”, we firmly believe that we are able enough to defeat the epidemic in the near future.

Yours,

Li Hua

【命题意图】

该命题贴近生活实际,鼓励学生在真实情境中运用英语,同时引导学生关注生活,热爱科学,学会在公共突发事件中,保持乐观心态,运用知识、科学防控,确保自己和他人健康,并在社会交往中用英语解决实际问题。

【审题指导】

根据写作的三点提示,可知“疫情简况”和“应对措施”应作为写作的重点,旨在引导学生关注生活实际,结合语境适当拓展,以实现交际的成功。“战疫信心”则可略写,旨在进行正确的心理疏导,形成积极乐观的正面心态。

【亮点评析】

范文行文流畅,内容详略得当。语言地道,表达得体。主要有三大亮点:

1. 句式多样:合理运用复合句(如 since, as, if从句)和过渡语(如at this particular time, in addition),既提升了语言表现力,又增强了行文的逻辑性和语篇的连贯性。

2. 巧用非谓语动词(如keep you informed, isolated等)和被动语态(如are required)。

3. 活用常用短语,如close down, keep … from等。

整理、创作:深圳市教育科学研究院 王卫华

编辑:王子薇 蔡雷

王卫华

  深圳市高中英语教研员,深圳中学原英语学科组长,华南师范大学、深圳大学教育硕士导师,中国外语教材教法研究中心广东省基础外语教育研究工作室主持人。获“全国外语教师园丁奖”,被评为“首届全国外语教师名师”。

  《新冠肺炎疫情高考英语专题学习材料》

  一、记一记

  【相关词汇】

  流行病 epidemic

  肺炎 pneumonia

  新型冠状病毒 novel coronavirus

  新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus /

  novel coronaviruscaused pneumonia / novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) / COCID-19

  呼吸道疾病 respiratory diseases

  急性呼吸道感染症状 acute respiratory infection symptom

  确诊病例 confirmed case

  疑似病例 suspected case

  重症患者 patient in critical condition

  病死率 fatality rate

  密切接触者 close contacts

  接受医学观察 be under medical observation

  隔离 quarantine

  潜伏期 incubation period

  人传人 human-to-human transmission

  飞沫传播droplet transmission

  发热、咳嗽、呼吸困难fever, cough and difficulty in breathing

  输入性病例imported case

  二代病例secodary infection case

  隐形感染asymptomatic infection

  疫情防控epidemic prevention and control

  口罩(face) mask

  防护服protective clothing

  护目镜goggles

  一次性手套disposable gloves

  医疗物资medical supplies

  疫苗vaccine

  携带病毒 carry the virus

  得肺炎 get/catch pneumonia

  超级传染源 superspreader

  病毒** virus outbreak

  遏制疫情** contain the outbreak

  严格的隔离政策 strict isolation policy

  封城the lockdown of a city / a city on lockdown

  应急医院makeshift hospital

  医务人员感染 infection of medical workers

  中国大部分地区口罩供应紧张 tight supplies in large areas of China

  禽流感病毒 avian influenza virus

  流行病学调查 epidemiological investigation

  医疗费用报销 reimbursement for medical expenses

  重大突发公共卫生事件以及相应first-level public health emergency response

  国家卫生健康委员会National Health Commission

  国际关注的突发公共卫生事件Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

  二、看一看

  (一)与“冠状病毒”有关的词

  官方命名:Official Name

  On Feb.11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) finally gave an official name to the novel coronavirus that has killed more than 1,000 people: COVID-19. “Co” is for coronavirus, “Vi” is for virus, “D” is for disease and “19” since it was detected in late 2019.

  世卫组织(WHO)2月11日将新型冠状病毒所致的疾病正式命名为:“COVID-19”。其中“Co”代表“冠状(corona)”,“Vi”为“病毒(virus)”,“D”为“疾病(disease)”。

  coronavirus /kəˈronəvaɪrəs / 冠状病毒

  这个词可分解为两部分:coronavirus 冠状病毒 =corona+virus 冠状的+病毒。

  • corona:冠状物 (我们所说的 “日冕” 与 “光圈”,也是这个词)
  • virus:病毒

  “新型冠状病毒”的英文是 novel coronavirus 。这里的 novel 不是“小说”,而是一个形容词,表示“新型的”。比如 a novel feature(新特性)。例:

  Before this outbreak, six coronaviruses had been identified in humans. Four caused relatively mild cold-like symptoms while the other two, Sars and Middle East respiratory syndrome (Mers), can be fatal.

  此次疫情**之前,已知的人类冠状病毒有6种。四种引起相对轻度的类似感冒症状,而另外两种——非典和中东呼吸综合征(MERS)——可能致命。

  Now, the fatal or deadly infectious disease caused by “Coronavirus” is inhumanly called as “Chinese Pneumonia” on the Internet, which is to kick China while it is down.

  现在,由于“冠状病毒”所引起的致命性传染病,在网络上非人道地被称为“中国肺炎”,是对中国落井下石。

  fatal /ˈfeɪtl / :a. 致命的;毁灭性的;灾难性的 (对于目前的状况来看,这的确是很丧的一个词儿!)

  infectious disease/ ɪnˈfekʃəs dɪˈziːz / :传染病

  infectious /ɪnˈfekʃəs /:a.传染的 由 infect (v. 传染;感染)+ ious(形容词后缀)构成

  infect / ɪnˈfekt /:v. 传染;感染 由in(进入,使。。。)+ fect (做) 构成 ——咱可以想一下儿:传染或感染,不正是有害物质或病毒,侵入体内,对健康的肌体做坏事儿——进行破坏吗?

  infection / ɪnˈfekʃn /:n. 传染 由 infect + -ion (名词后缀)构成

  pneumonia / nuˈmoʊnɪə / n. 肺炎

  这个词,是由 pneumon- (肺)+ -ia (疾病名词后缀)构成

  (二)“冠状病毒”传播的主要途径

  1. the air by coughing and sneezing

  经由空气传播,比如咳嗽、打喷嚏

  2. close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands

  通过人与人之间的近距离接触传播,比如触摸或者握手

  3. touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands

  通过触摸物品或感染病毒的用品表面传播,原因在于没洗手就触摸嘴、鼻和眼睛

  4. rarely, fecal contamination

  还有一种比较少见的,就是通过粪便传染

  (三)如何预防“冠状病毒”

  1. Clean hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub.

  用肥皂或者用含酒精的洗手液洗手。

  2. Cover nose and mouth when coughing and sneezing with tissue or flexed elbow.

  咳嗽或打喷嚏时,用面巾纸或屈肘捂住口鼻。

  3. Avoid close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms.

  避免跟有感冒或流感症状的人密切接触。

  4. Thoroughly cook meat and eggs.

  将肉类和鸡蛋彻底煮熟。

  5. Avoid unprotected contact with live wild or farm animals.

  避免在未加防护的情况下接触野生动物或家畜。

  三、读一读

  【外媒剪影,双语阅读】

  1. 什么是冠状病毒?What is a coronavirus?

  Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals.

  冠状病毒是一大类常见于动物的病毒的总称。

  In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted (传播,动词) from animals to humans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  据美国疾病控制和预防中心称,在极少数情况下,科学家称之为“人畜共患疾病”,这意味着它们可以从动物传染给人类。

  2. 冠状病毒症状Coronavirus symptoms

  The viruses can make people sick, usually with a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract (上呼吸道) illness, similar to a common cold.

  通常表现为轻中度上呼吸道疾病,症状类似于普通感冒。

  For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia (肺炎) or bronchitis (支气管炎).

  对于免疫力较弱的老年人和儿童,病毒有可能导致更严重的下部呼吸道疾病,如肺炎或支气管炎。

  There are a handful of human coronaviruses that are known to be deadly (致命的), such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome).

  有些冠状病毒是致命的,如中东呼吸综合征(MERS)和SARS。

  The Wuhan coronavirus is currently thought to be more mild than SARS and MERS and takes longer to develop symptoms. Patients to date have typically experienced a mild cough for a week followed by shortness of breath (呼吸急促). So far, around 15% to 20% of cases have become severe, requiring, for example, ventilation in the hospital.

  目前认为,武汉冠状病毒相较SARS和MERS更为温和,潜伏时间更长。到目前为止,患者通常在一周内出现轻微咳嗽,随后出现呼吸急促症状。目前,大约15%到20%的病例病情出现恶化情况,需要入院并接受呼吸机治疗。

  3. 传播途径 How it spreads

  Viruses can spread from human contact (接触) with animals.

  病毒可通过人类与动物的接触传播。

  When it comes to human-to-human transmission (传播,名词) of the viruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with an infected person's secretions (分泌物), such as droplets (小水滴,飞沫) in a cough.

  病毒在人与人之间传播时,通常发生在接触到感染者的分泌物时,例如咳嗽时的飞沫。

  Depending on how virulent the virus is, a cough, sneeze or handshake could causeexposure (暴露,接触). The virus can also be transmitted by touching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes.

  根据病毒的毒力,咳嗽、打喷嚏或握手都可能导致暴露。这种病毒也可以通过触摸被感染者触摸过的东西,然后触摸嘴、鼻子或眼睛来传播。

  4. 感染人群 Who is affected?

  MERS, SARS and the Wuhan coronavirus appear to cause more severe disease in older people, though uncertainty remains around the latest outbreak (**). Of the cases of Wuhan coronavirus reported so far, none are yet confirmed to be among children. The average age is people 40 or over.

  尽管最近的武汉冠状病毒疫情仍不确定,但MERS、SARS和武汉冠状病毒似乎在老年人中会引起更严重的症状。在迄今报道的武汉冠状病毒病例中,尚未证实有儿童感染。感染者平均年龄在40岁以上。

  5. 冠状病毒感染的治疗 Coronavirus treatment

  There is no specific treatment, but research is underway. Most of the time, symptoms will go away on their own (自行消失) and experts advise seeking care early. If symptoms feel worse than a standard cold, see your doctor.

  目前还没有具体的治疗方法,但研究仍在进行中。多数情况下症状会自行消失,但专家建议尽早寻求治疗。如果症状比标准感冒更严重,请看医生。

  Doctors can relieve (缓解) symptoms by prescribing (开处方) a pain or fever medication.

  医生可以通过开止痛药或退烧药来缓解症状。

  6. 武汉新型冠状病毒严重程度

  Should you worry about the Wuhan coronavirus?

  The Wuhan coronavirus fatality rate (致死率) is lower than for SARS and MERS, but still comparable (相当) to the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic (大流行病). The fatality rate is likely to be lower due to an “iceberg” of milder cases we are yet to find.

  武汉冠状病毒死亡率低于SARS和MERS,但仍与1918年西班牙流感大流行相当。真实的病死率可能会更低,因为可能有大量较轻病例尚未发现。

  7. 如何预防 How can you prevent it?

  You may be able to reduce your risk of infection (感染) by avoiding people who are sick. Try to avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. Wash your hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.

  可以通过避开病人来降低感染的风险。尽量避免触摸眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴。经常用肥皂洗手,每次洗手至少20秒的时间。

  Awareness is key. If you are sick and have reason to believe it may be the Wuhan coronavirus due to travel to the region or coming into contact with someone who has been there, you should let a health care provider know and seek treatment early.

  预防意识是关键。如果你前往过武汉或与曾去过那里的人接触,有理由怀疑自己感染了武汉冠状病毒,应报告医疗机构并尽早寻求治疗。

  Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, and disinfect (消毒) the objects and surfaces you touch.

  咳嗽或喷嚏时捂住口鼻,并对触摸的物体和表面进行消毒。

  四、练一练

  (一)阅读“七选五”

How to keep yourself safe from the new virus?

  After a new-type coronavirus was detected in viral pneumonia cases in Central China’s Wuhan city a month ago, more cases have been reported in recent days.

  1 :

  1. Wear masks outdoors

  • Wearing a mask is one of the most effective ways to protect you from getting infected.
  • Make sure to wear it properly by tightening up the nose clip and pulling the bottom of it over your chin.
  • 2 , a mask is also needed to prevent you from spreading germs to others.
  • Medical masks used by medical workers are not recommended for common people as they may lead to oxygen deficient if worn for long periods.

  2. Cover your coughs and sneeze with tissue

  Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, or you can cough or sneeze into your sleeve, but avoid covering with your hands directly.

  3. 3

  Wash your hands with soap and running water thoroughly for at least 15 seconds, especially:

  • Before eating and after using the toilet
  • After returning home
  • After touching trash or garbage
  • After contacting with animals or handling animal wastes

  4. Strengthen your immune system and exercise regularly

  • Exercise regularly is one of the most important ways to help you stay away from catching any infections.
  • Make sure that shared spaces have good air flow and avoid going to crowded places such as hospitals, railway stations and airports. 4 .
  • Seek prompt medical attention if you have symptoms of fever and respiratory infection.
  • Avoid close contact with people who have flu or cold-like symptoms.
  • 5 . Avoid contact with wild animals or farmed livestock without any protection.

  A. If your hands are not visibly dirty

  B. Eat thoroughly cooked meat and eggs

  C. Wash your hands frequently and properly

  D. Protect yourself and others from getting sick

  E. Wear a mask if transport or movement is necessary

  F. If you’re not feeling well or have symptoms of fever

  G. To prevent catching the infection, here's what you can do

  (说明:选文来源:China Daily)

  【参考答案】 1-5 GFCEB

  (二)语法填空

  We are deeply saddened by the passing of Dr. Li Wenliang, one of the eight “whistle 1 (blow)” ,who tried 2 (warn) his fellow doctors of the novel coronavirus when it first broke out in Wuhan,and died early on Friday. Wuhan Central Hospital 3 (confirm)it in a statement released on 4 (it) official Weibo account. “Our hospital’s ophthalmologist Li Wenliang was 5 (unfortunate) infected with coronavirus during his work in the fight 6 the coronavirus epidemic,” the statement read, 7 (add) “He died at 2:58 a.m. on February 7 after attempts to resuscitate were unsuccessful.” “We deeply regret and mourn Li’s 8 (die).” the Central Hospital of Wuhan also announced on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter.

  Dr. Li is a hero, 9 will live in our hearts forever. May God bless all the courageous doctors and nurses 10 (fight) on the front line.

  【参考答案】

  (三)书面表达

  假定你是李华,你的外籍教师Tom来信询问武汉冠状病毒感染肺炎(COVID-19)的有关情况。请你给他回信,内容包括:

  1. 疫情简况;

  2. 应对措施;

  3. 战疫信心。

  注意:

  1. 词数100左右;

  2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

  【参考范文】

  Dear Tom,

  I am very glad to hear from you inquiring about the COVID-19 in Wuhan. I am writing to keep you informed of it.

  Since the outbreak of the disease in Wuhan in December 2019, the Chinese government has decisively closed down the city to prevent its spread. At the same time, although cases have been found in many other cities, the local people actively face them, to fight against the epidemic side by side with Wuhan.

  At this particular time, we are required to stay indoors, isolated. If we have to go out, we must wear protective masks to keep ourselves from getting infected. I addition, we should keep ourselves clean and keep on exercising at home every day.

  As many of us say, “Be strong, Wuhan.”, we firmly believe that we are able enough to defeat the epidemic in the near future.

Yours,

Li Hua

  【命题意图】

  该命题贴近生活实际,鼓励学生在真实情境中运用英语,同时引导学生关注生活,热爱科学,学会在公共突发事件中,保持乐观心态,运用知识、科学防控,确保自己和他人健康,并在社会交往中用英语解决实际问题。

  【审题指导】

  根据写作的三点提示,可知“疫情简况”和“应对措施”应作为写作的重点,旨在引导学生关注生活实际,结合语境适当拓展,以实现交际的成功。“战疫信心”则可略写,旨在进行正确的心理疏导,形成积极乐观的正面心态。

  【亮点评析】

  范文行文流畅,内容详略得当。语言地道,表达得体。主要有三大亮点:

  1. 句式多样:合理运用复合句(如 since, as, if从句)和过渡语(如at this particular time, in addition),既提升了语言表现力,又增强了行文的逻辑性和语篇的连贯性。

  2. 巧用非谓语动词(如keep you informed, isolated等)和被动语态(如are required)。

  3. 活用常用短语,如close down, keep … from等。

  整理、创作:深圳市教育科学研究院 王卫华

  编辑:王子薇 蔡雷

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